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Title Inheritance of Shoulder Spotting in the Red-base Tetra (Characidae: Hemigrammus stictus)
Author Jack S. Frankel
The Red-base tetra (Hemigrammus stictus) exhibits two phenotypes associated with shoulder spotting. Fish either possess a prominent black shoulder spot located directly behind the operculum or lack this spotting pattern. Segregation patterns observed from the progenies of eleven different crosses suggest that the inheritance of shoulder spotting is controlled by the action of two autosomal loci acting in a complementary recessive fashion, with dominance at either locus resulting in the expression of the spotted phenotype.
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Bisazza A, and A Pilastro (2000)  Variation of female preference for male 
coloration in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).  Behavior 
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Frankel JS (1985)  Inheritance of trunk striping in the Sumatran tiger barb, 
Barbus tetrazona. J Hered 76: 478-479.
Frankel JS (1991)  Inheritance of body marking patterns in the half-banded barb, Barbus semifasciolatus. J Hered 82: 250-251.
Frankel JS (1998)  Monogenic inheritance of trunk banding patterns in the 
Sumatra barb, Barbus tetrazona. J Fish Biol 53: 1357-1359.Frankel JS (2000)  Monogenic control of iris coloration in the January 
tetra (Hemigrammus hyanuary Characidae). J Hered 91: 411-412.
Frankel JS (2001)  Inheritance of caudal peduncle banding in the spiketailed paradisefish. J Fish Biol 59: 1095-1097.  
Frankel JS (2002) Caudal spotting in the beacon fish (Hemigrammus 
ocellifer Characidae).  J Hered 93: 285-286.
Frankel JS (2004)  Inheritance of trunk banding in the tetra (Gymnocorymbus ternetzi Characidae).  J Hered 95: 262-264.
Frankel JS (2005)  Digenic control of colouration in the two-spot gouraAtlas Journal of Biology - ISSN 2158-9151. Published By Atlas Publishing, LP (
mi, Trichogaster trichopterus trichopterus.  J Genet 84: 101-103.
Frankel JS (2009)  Inheritance of shoulder spotting in the tetra, Hyphessobrycon bentosi Characidae.  Open Fish Sci J 2: 39-41
Horth L (2006)  A sex-linked allele, autosomal modifiers and temperature-dependence appear to regulate melanism in male mosquitofish 
(Gambusia holbrooki).  J Exp Biol 209: 4938-4945. 
Riehl R, H Baensch, H Smith, E Schulze, and B Behme (1997)  Baensch 
aquarium atlas: 6th ed. Steven Simpson Books.  pp. 266-280.
Keywords Hemigrammus stictus, Red-base tetra, shoulder spotting, Characidae.
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