Applied Technologies and Innovations

  Previous Article | Back to Volume | Next Article
  Abstract | References | Citation | Download | Preview | Statistics
Volume 4
Issue 1
Online publication date 2011-04-18
Title Infectious diseases and social stigma
Author Joan L. Williams, Diego J. Gonzalez-Medina, Quan Vu Le
Abstract

Stigma creates a barrier between the sick and the rest of society that prevents them from acting on their instinctive desire to seek curative treatment that will enable them to reenter into their every day social activity. For these ailing persons, the cost of being stigmatized far outweighs the desire to rehabilitate their lifestyle. Further, social stigma associated with infectious disease undermines the overall health of society, and the effectiveness of community efforts to offer unabridged healthcare services to treat and prevent the spread of communicable disease.  In the wake of the latest pandemic influenza outbreak, the global community witnessed how under the stress H1N1, communities, regions, and countries can suffer socially and economically.  Our research finds a statistically significant relationship between infectious disease and social stigma.  We also identify the role the media plays in exacerbating this issue, and address preliminary policy implications to mitigate these issues in the future.

Citation
References Baral, S., Karki, D., Newell, J., 2007. “Causes of stigma and discrimination associated with tuberculosis in Nepal: a qualitative study,” BMC Public Health, Vol.7, p.211. Barrett, R., Brown, P.J., 2008. “Stigma in the time of influenza: Social and institutional responses to pandemic emergencies,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, Suppl., Vol.197, pp.34-37. Basrur, S., Yaffe, B., Henry, B., 2004. “SARS: A local public health perspective,” Canadian Journal of Public Health, Vol.95, pp.22-24. BBC, 2009. “WHO declares swine flu pandemic,” BBC News [Online]. [cited 2010 December 4]; Available from URL: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/8094655.stm BI, 2009. “Swine flu causes brawl on NYC subway,” Business Insider [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 5]; Available from: URL: http://www.businessinsider.com/fight-on-nyc-subway-over-swine-flu-2009-11 Brug, J., Oenema, A., de Zwart, O., Richardus, J., Bishop, G., 2004. “SARS risk perception, knowledge, precautions, and information sources, the Netherlands,” Emerging Infectious Disease, Vol.10, pp.1486-489. Burris, S., 2002. “Disease stigma in US health law,” Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics, Vol.30, pp.179-190. Cash, R., Narasimhan, V., 2000. “Impediments to global surveillance of infectious diseases: consequences of open reporting in a global economy,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol.78, pp.1358-368. Cogan, J., Herek, G., 1998. Stigma [Online]. [cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.thebody.com/content/art14039.html CD, 2009. “Mexico flu hits Shanghai trade fair,” China Daily [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/language_tips/cdaudio/2009-05/12/content_7768463.htm CSM, 2009. “Mexico city returns to normal as swine flu restrictions fade,” The Christian Science Monitor [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2009/0506/p90s01-woam.html?sms_ss=email&at_xt=4cfaf5d122b68d93,0 Des Jarlais, D., Galea, S., Tracy, M., Tross, S., Vlahov, D., 2006. “Stigmatization of newly emerging infectious disease: AIDS and SARS,” American Journal of Public Health, Vol.96, pp.561-67. DYO, 2009. “Vision put into practice: Mexico's response to H1N1,” Daily Yomiuri Online [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL:http://www.yomiuri.co.jp /dy/columns/ commentary /20090721dy02.htm Eichelberger, L., 2007. “SARS and New York's Chinatown: The politics of risk and blame during an epidemic of fear,” Social Science and Medicine, Vol.65, pp.1284-295. Gilmore, N., Somerville, M., 1994. “Stigmatization, scapegoating and discrimination in sexually transmitted diseases: Overcoming ‘them’ and ‘us’,” Social Science and Medicine, Vol.39, p.1339. Goodwin, R., Haque, S., Neto, F., Myers, L., 2009. “Initial psychological responses to influenza A, H1N1 (“Swine Flu”),” BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol.9 Hawryluck, L., Gold, W., Robinson, S., Pogorski, S., Galea, S., Styra, R., 2004. “SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada,” Emerging Infectious Disease, Vol.10, pp.1206-212. Herek, G., Capitanio, J., Widaman, K., 2003. “Stigma, social risk, and health policy: Public attitudes toward HIV surveillance policies and the social construction of illness,” Health Psychology, Vol.22, pp.533-40. Koblentz, G., 2009. “World medical & health policy: The threat of pandemic influenza: Why today is not 1918,” World Medical & Health Policy, Vol.1, pp.71-84. Kunreuther, H., Slovic, P., 1999. “Coping with Stigma: Challenges & Opportunities,” Risk: Health, Safety & Environment, Vol.10, pp.269-80. Lau, J., Yang, X., Pang, E., Tsui, H., Wong, E., Wing, Y., 2005. “SARS-related perceptions in Hong Kong,” Emerging Infectious Disease, Vol.11, pp.417-24. Lee, S., Chan, L., Chau, A., Kwok, K., Kleinman, A., 2005. “The experience of SARS related stigma at Amoy Gardens,” Social Science and Medicine, Vol.61, p.2038. Lee, SS., Lee, S., Fung, C., Kwok, K., 2008. “Public attitudes toward SARS and their implications for societal preparedness for other emerging infections,” Social Medicine, Vol.3, pp.57-63. Link, B., Phelan, J., 2001. “Conceptualizing stigma,” Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.27, pp.363-85. MacDougall, H., 2008. “Fear, flight, frustration and dedicated service: A brief history of international disease control activities, 1918-2008,” Forum on Public Policy [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.forumonpublicpolicy.com/summer08papers/archivesummer08/macdougall.pdf Mak, W., Mo, P., Cheung, R., Woo, J., Cheung, F., Lee, D., 2006. “Comparative stigma of HIV/ AIDS, SARS, and tuberculosis in Hong Kong,” Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 63, pp.1912-1922. Maunder, R., 2004. “The experience of the 2003 SARS outbreak as a traumatic stress among frontline healthcare workers in Toronto: lessons learned,” Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society - Biological Sciences, Vol.359, pp.1117-125. NGLTF, 2009. “Task Force: Lifting HIV travel ban will finally end 'federally sanctioned stigma’,” National Gay and Lesbian Task Force [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.thetaskforce.org/press/releases/pr_103009 NYT, 2009a. “The Flu’s Effects on Immigrants and the Working Poor,” The New York Times [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res= 9c01efdf173af934a35756c0a96f9c8b63&emc=eta1 NYT, 2009b. “Even as fears of flu ebb, Mexicans feel stigma,” The New York Times [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/05/world/asia/05china.html Perry, P., Donini-Lenhoff, F., 2010. “Stigmatization complicates infectious disease management,” American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, Vol.12, pp.225-30. Siu, J., 2008. “The SARS - associated stigma of SARS victims in the post SARS era of Hong Kong,” Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 18, pp.729-738. Smith, R., 2006. “Responding to global infectious disease outbreaks: Lessons from SARS on the role of risk perception, communication and management,” Social Science and Medicine, Vol.63, pp.3113-123. Tzeng, H., Yin, C., 2006. “Learning to respect a patient’s spiritual needs concerning an unknown infectious disease,” Nursing Ethics, Vol.13, pp.17-28. Verma, S., Mythily, S., Chan, Y., Deslypere, J., Teo, E., Chong, S., 2004. “Post SARS psychological morbidity and stigma among general practitioners and traditional chinese medicine practitioners in Singapore,” Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, Vol.33, pp.743-48. Weiss, M., Ramakrishna, J., 2001. “Interventions: Research on Reducing Stigma,” National Institute of Health [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.stigmaconference.nih.gov/WeissPaper.htm WHO, 2005-2007, 2009a. World Health Organization. World Health Statistics [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/en/index.html WHO, 2009b. “Technical advice for case management of Influenza A(H1N1) in air transport,” World Health Organization [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL:http://www.emro.who.int/ csr/h1n1/pdf/air_transport_guidance.pdf WP, 2010. “H1N1 response shows need for better medical emergency plans,” The Washington Post [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/03/AR2010010301812.html WSJ, 2009. “China plans to fly Mexicans home,” The Wall Street Journal [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from: URL: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124144082682583111.html WVS, 2005-2007. World values survey [Online]. [Cited 2010 December 4]; Available from URL: http://www.wvsevsdb.com/wvs/WVSAnalizeStudy.jsp
Keywords Stigma, influenza, public health, infectious disease, pandemic
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15208/ati.2011.7
Pages 58-70
Download Full PDF Download
  Previous Article | Back to Volume | Next Article
Share
Search in articles
Statistics
Journal Published articles
ATI 263
Journal Hits
ATI 789693
Journal Downloads
ATI 7698
Total users online -