Medical Microbiology and Immunology

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Title Using distinct molecular signatures of human monocytes and dendritic cells to predict adjuvant activity and pyrogenicity of TLR agonists
Author Richard Kenmoe Kamgang, Ines Ramos, Lurdes Rodrigues Duarte, Mascia Ghielmetti, Marina Freudenberg, Clemens Dahinden, Elisabetta Padovan
Abstract We present a systematic study that defines molecular profiles of adjuvanticity and pyrogenicity induced by agonists of human Toll-like receptor molecules in vitro. Using P3CSK4, Lipid A and Poly I:C as model adjuvants we show that all three molecules enhance the expansion of IFNγ /CD4 T cells from their naïve precursors following priming with allogeneic DC in vitro. In contrast, co-culture of naive CD4 T cells with allogeneic monocytes and TLR2/TLR4 agonists only resulted in enhanced T cell proliferation. Distinct APC molecular signatures in response to each TLR agonist underline the dual effect observed on T cell responses. Using protein and gene expression assays, we show that TNF-α and CXCL10 represent DC-restricted molecular signatures of TLR2/TLR4 and TLR3 activation, respectively, in sharp contrast to IL-6 produced by monocytes upon stimulation with P3CSK4 and Lipid A. Furthermore, although all TLR agonists are able to up-regulate proIL-1β specific gene in both cell types, only monocyte activation with Lipid A results in detectable IL-1β release. These molecular profiles, provide a simple screen to select new immune enhancers of human Th1 responses suitable for clinical application.
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Keywords Adjuvant screening - Human - Dendritic cell - Monocytes - Th1 cells
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