PRADEC Interdisciplinary Conference Proceedings

  Previous Article | Back to Volume | Next Article
  Abstract | References | Citation | Download | Preview | Statistics
Volume 3
Issue 1
Title Systematizing internationalization policy in higher education: Towards a typology
Author Daniela Craciun
The internationalization of higher education has become a strategic priority for governments because of the benefits expected to derive from it in the economic, political, socio-cultural and academic spheres. Nevertheless, a review of the academic literature on internationalization in higher education reveals that the concept of “internationalization” has been understood and applied in a variable manner. Considering that internationalization is a central theme in higher education research and practice, this state of affairs is problematic. In response to this situation, this article proposes the establishment of a conceptual typology for the analysis of national internationalization policies as a solution. In turn, such a heuristic device will ease knowledge accumulation, cross-case comparability and disciplined use of terms and procedures. The paper ends by dispelling common concerns related to classifications.
Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., Rumbley, L.E., 2009. “Trends in global higher education: Tracking and academic revolution”, UNESCO, Paris

Arts, W., Gelissen, J., 2002. “Three worlds of welfare capitalism or more?: A state-of-the-art report”, Journal of European Social Policy, Vol.12, No.2, pp.137-158

Arum, S., van de Water, H., 1992. “The need for a definition of international education in U.S. Universities”, in Klasek, C. (Ed.) Bridges to the futures: Strategies for internationalizing higher education. Association for International Education Administrators, Carbondale, pp.191-203

Bailey, K.D., 1994. Typologies and taxonomies: An introduction to classification techniques, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks

Bartell, M., 2003. “Internationalization of universities: A university culture-based framework”, Higher Education, Vol.45, pp.43-70

Brandenburg, U., de Wit, H., 2011. “The end of internationalization”, International Higher Education, Vol.62, pp.15-17

British Council, 2011. “Global gauge”, Education Intelligence Unit Series
Callan, H., 2000. “Higher education internationalization strategies: Of marginal significance or all-pervasive? The international vision in practice: A decade of evolution”, Higher Education in Europe, Vol.25, No.1, pp.15-23

Childress, L. K., 2009. “Internationalization plans for higher education institutions”, Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol.13, pp.289-309

Collier, D., Levitsky, S., 1997. “Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual innovation in comparative research”, World Politics, Vol.49, No.3, pp.430-451

Collier, D., LaPorte, J., Seawright, J., 2012. “Putting typologies to work: Concept formation, measurement, and analytic rigour”, Political Research Quarterly, Vol.65, No.1, pp.217-232

Dunlop, C.A., Radaelli, C.M., 2013. “Systematising policy learning: From monolith to dimensions”, Political Studies, Vol.61, pp.599-619

Egron-Polak, E., Hudson, R., 2014. “Internationalization of higher education: Growing expectations, fundamental values”, IAU 4th Global Survey, International Association of Universities

Elman, C., 2005. “Explanatory typologies in qualitative studies of international politics”, International Organization, Vol.59, No.2, pp.293-326

European Comission, 2013. “Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: European Higher Education in the World”, COM (2013) 499, final

European University Association, 2013. “Internationalization in European higher education: European policies, institutional strategies and EUA support”, Brussels
Gerring, J., 1999. “What Makes a Good Concept? A criterial framework for understanding concept formation in social sciences”, Polity, Vol.31, No.3, pp.357-393

Gerring, J., Barresi, P.A., 2003. “Putting ordinary language to work: A min-max strategy of concept formation in the social sciences”, Journal of Theoretical Politics, Vol.15, No.2, pp.201-232

Graf, L., 2009. “Applying varieties of capitalism approach to higher education: Comparing the internationalization of German and British universities”, European Journal of Education, Vol.44, No.4, pp.569-585

Guruz, K., 2008. Higher education and international student mobility in the global knowledge economy, State University of New York Press, Albany

Henard, F., Diamond, L. & Roseveare, D., 2012. “Approaches to internationalisation and their implications for strategic management and institutional practice: A guide for higher education institutions“, OECD, Paris

Huisman, J., 2008. “Higher education policy: The evolution of a journal”, Higher Education Policy, Vol.21, pp.265-274

Jones, G., 2008. “Can provincial universities be global institutions? Rethinking the institutions as the unit of analysis in the study of globalization and higher education”, Higher Education Policy, Vol.21, pp.457-468

Jones, G., de Wit, H., 2014. “Globalized internationalization: Implications for policy and practice”, IIE Networker, pp.28-29

Kalvemark, T., van der Wende, M., 1997. “National Policies for Internationalization of higher education”, Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, Stockholm

Kehm, B.M., 2003. “Internationalization in higher education: From regional to global”, in Begg, R. (Ed.), The dialogue between higher education research and practice, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pp.109-119

King, R., 2010. “Policy internationalization, national variety, and governance: global models and network power in higher education states“, Higher Education, Vol.60, pp.583-594

Knight, J., 1993. “Internationalization: Management strategies and issues”, International Education Magazine, Vol.9, No.1, pp.6, 21, 22

Knight, J., 2003a. “Internationalization of higher education practices and priorities: 2003 IAU Survey Report”, International Association of Universities

Knight, J., 2003b. “Update internationalization definition”, International Higher Education, Vol.33, pp.2-3

Knight, J., 2004. “Internationalization remodeled: Definition, approaches, and rationales”, Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol.8, No.1, pp.5-31

Knight, J., Lee, J., 2004. “An analytical framework for educational hubs”, in Knight, J. (Ed.), International education hubs: Student, talent, knowledge-innovation, Springer, Dordrecht, pp.29-42

Kreber, C., 2009. “Different perspectives on internationalization in higher education”, New Directions for Teaching and Learning, Vol.118, pp.1-14

Luijten-Lub, A., van der Wende, M. & Huisman, J., 2005. “On cooperation and competition: A Comparative analysis of national policies for internationalisation of higher education in seven western European Countries“, Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol.9, No.2, pp.147-163

Mahoney, J., 2004. “Comparative-historical methodology”, Annual Review Sociology, Vol.30, pp.81-101

Matei, L., Iwinska, J., 2015. “National strategies and practices in internationalisation of higher education: Lessons from a cross-country comparison”, in Curaj, A., Deca, L., Egron-Polak, E., Salmi, J. (Eds.) Higher Education Reforms in Romania, Springer, London

Matthews, J., Sidhu, R., 2005. “Desperately seeking the global subject: International education, citizenship and cosmopolitanism”, Globalisation, Societies and Education, Vol.3, No.1, pp.49-66

Perna, L.W., Orosz, K., Gopaul, B., Jumakulov, Z., Ashirbekov, A., Kishkentayeva, M., 2014. “Promoting human capital development: A typology of international scholarship programs in higher education”, Educational Researcher, Vol.20, No.10, pp.1-11

Richards, C., 1988. “A typology of educational monitoring systems”, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, Vol.10, No.2, pp.106-116

Sartori, G., 1970. “Concept misformation in comparative politics”, The American Political Science Review, Vol.64, No.4, pp.1033-1053

Scott, P., 2000. “Globalisation and higher education: Challenges for the 21st Century”, Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol.4, No.1, pp.3-10

Soderqvist, M., 2002. Internationalisation and its management at higher-education institutions: Applying conceptual, content and discourse analysis, Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki

Teichler, U., 2002. “Internationalisierung der Hochschulen”, Das Hochschulwesen, Vol.50, No.1, pp.3-9

Teichler, U., 2009. “Internationalization of higher education: European experiences”, Asia Pacific Education Review, Vol.10, pp.93-106

Triventi, M., 2013. “Higher education regimes: An empirical classification of higher education systems and its relationship to student accessibility”, Quality & Quantity, Vol.48, No.3, pp.1685-1703

van der Wende, M.C., 2001. “Internationalization policies: About new trends and contrasting paradigms”, Higher Education Policy, Vol.14, pp.249-259

van Gyn, G., Scherholz-Lehr, S., Caws, C., Preece, A., 2009. “Education for world-mindedness: Beyond superficial notions of internationalization”, New Directions for Teaching and Leaning, Vol.118, pp.25-38

van Kersberger, K., Vis, B., 2015. “Three worlds’ typology: Moving beyond normal science?”, Journal of European Social Policy, Vol.25, No.1, pp.111-123

van Vught, F., Bartelse, J., Bohmert, D., Burquel, N., Divis, J., Huisman, J., van der Wende, M., 2005. Institutional profiles: Towards a typology of higher education institutions in Europe. Available at: 

Ziegele, F., 2013. “Classification of higher education institutions: The European case”, Pensamiento Educativo, Vol.50, No.1, pp.76-95

Keywords Higher education, internationalization, typology, conceptualization, policy
Pages 78-85
Download Full PDF Download
  Previous Article | Back to Volume | Next Article
Search in articles
Journal Published articles
PICP 163
Journal Hits
PICP 344665
Journal Downloads
PICP 834
Total users online -