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Title Interventions for smoking cessation during pregnancy
Author Andriani N. Loukopoulou, Miltos P. Vasiliou, Panagiotis K. Behrakis
Abstract Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be the most significant risk factor for the foetus and it is associated with complications during pregnancy, unfavourable results in childbirth and a variety of health problems in newborn infants and children. Most of these negative effects are reversible if smoking cessation is achieved during the first trimester of gestation. Smoking cessation has been found to contribute to a decrease in low birth weight and prematurity rates and reduced needs for health care in childhood. Successful interventions for smoking cessation can be considered cost effective because, regardless of their intensity, their cost is minimal compared with the beneficial results. The interventions that are considered to be the most effective are the intensive, cognitive-behavioural type, which involve face-to-face contact, more and longer sessions, and the use of a self-help manual, and accompanied with sessions after childbirth to prevent a post-partum smoking relapse. There is some debate in the international scientific community on the issue of use of medication for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Recently, the use of nicotine replacement products has been suggested, for highly dependent smokers only, after careful assessment and with close supervision, and provided that the pregnant woman is determined to stop smoking. The effectiveness and safety of these products, however, have not been sufficiently evaluated.
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Keywords Smoking, pregnancy, smoking cessation, quit, intensive interventions, low-intensity interventions, strategies.
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